ANCER: Anisotropic Certification via Sample-wise Volume Maximization

Abstract

Randomized smoothing has recently emerged as an effective tool that enables certification of deep neural network classifiers at scale. All prior art on randomized smoothing has focused on isotropic $\ell_p$ certification, which has the advantage of yielding certificates that can be easily compared among isotropic methods via $\ell_p$-norm radius. However, isotropic certification limits the region that can be certified around an input to worst-case adversaries, i.e., it cannot reason about other “close”, potentially large, constant prediction safe regions. To alleviate this issue, (i) we theoretically extend the isotropic randomized smoothing $\ell_1$ and $\ell_2$ certificates to their generalized anisotropic counterparts following a simplified analysis. Moreover, (ii) we propose evaluation metrics allowing for the comparison of general certificates - a certificate is superior to another if it certifies a superset region - with the quantification of each certificate through the volume of the certified region. We introduce ANCER, a framework for obtaining anisotropic certificates for a given test set sample via volume maximization. We achieve it by generalizing memory-based certification of data-dependent classifiers. Our empirical results demonstrate that ANCER achieves state-of-the-art $\ell_1$ and $\ell_2$ certified accuracy on CIFAR-10 and ImageNet in the data-dependence setting, while certifying larger regions in terms of volume, highlighting the benefits of moving away from isotropic analysis.

Publication
Transactions of Machine Learning Research
Adel Bibi
Adel Bibi
Senior Research Fellow

My research interests include machine learning, computer vision, and optimization.